Halneuron®‘s active pharmaceutical ingredient is Tetrodoxin (“TTX”), a small molecule known to block the sodium channels found on pain fibres in a highly selective manner. The mechanism of action via which TTX exerts its pain-relieving properties is related to the compound’s ability to inhibit the movement of sodium ions through the sodium channels required for the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses at the periphery.
Both peripheral nerves and spinal nerve cells called the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contain sodium channels that are sensitive to TTX blockage. When blocked by TTX, less sodium current passes through these sodium channels, reducing abnormal neuronal activity and resulting in pain relief. There is evidence that TTX treatment reduces the aberrant nerve impulses in hyper-excitable damaged peripheral nerves, going up to and including the DRG.