Patient Population

Cancer patients with moderate to severe pain insufficiently relieved by their painkiller treatment were assigned at random (like tossing a coin) to either the TTX group or to the placebo (an inactive substance) group. TTX (or placebo) was injected under the skin at a dose of 30 micrograms (a microgram is equal to one-millionth of a gram). This was done twice daily for 4 days. The patients were evaluated and followed for at least 15 days or more until pain returned.

At the end of the study, each patient had the opportunity of receiving multiple cycles of TTX (active medication only), in an open label trial with the agreement of their doctor.